[Cover photo: Airview of the Hale Observatory, Mount Palomar, Southern California, Where the 200-inch Reflector has Recently been completed. (Courtesy of The Griffith Observer, Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles, California, Issue of September, 1947.)]
The Theosophical Society, the land of Theosophy, is one where the veil, the brooding darkness, of strangeness does not separate, which is lighted by the light of an early dawn of the Sun of our Wisdom on the world of our ignorance. The Theosophical Society is meant to be a spiritual League of Nations, a spiritual United Nations - the one organization in the whole world in which people of different nationalities, faiths, upbringing and other interests are brought together by a depth and breadth of understanding which exceeds these barriers; where there are no cross-purposes or misunderstandings, though there may be difficulties from time to time; where no policy is executed by enforcement, because the spirit is eternally free and in the realm of the spirit there is a democracy of freedom, self -initiation and self-discovery, blended with an order framed and brought about by the autocracy of wisdom; yet there is a definite policy perceivable in a definite effect.
There is no set system of Theosophical truths to which an Orthodox fold has to give its adherence; yet there are certain broad fundamental facts of Nature - facts to Those who have brought them within our ken - to which the most earnest and active among us by a free consensus have given our uplifted assent. Our Society is not a body of theorists, of academic intellectuals, nor a social club nor a club of idealistic snobs, nor even practical reformers, philanthropists, one-pointedly, fanatically devoted to a single limited objective. It makes room for all these, suffers all these, even encourages all these, yet it transcends and exceeds their limited span and scope. ...
Theosophy is a matter of life more than of mere form and much more than the detailed analysis and cataloging of the various parts of that form. He who has realized and imbodies in himself one truth of vital significance becomes in that very act a transmitter of that truth which no amount of mere verbal propaganda can fix in the hearts of others. ... Our Society will grow and renew itself from time to time through the centuries to come because its root is of imperishable potentiality. ... It is our role to lead the world from the past and the present to that future, to be the heralds and prophets of that future, at least its welcomers and friends. - N. Sri Ram, in The American Theosophist, May, 1948. 
*We have the great privilege of publishing in this issue an article
specially written for this magazine by our friend, Dr. Gustaf Stromberg,
distinguished scientist of international repute, and original thinker
along deeply philosophical lines. Dr. Stromberg was born and educated
in Sweden where he received his academic degrees at the Universities
of Stockholm and Lund. He came to the United States in 1916, and was
a member of the scientific research staff of the Mount Wilson Observatory
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington from 1917 to 1946. During this
time he wrote a number of scientific papers on stellar motions and stellar
statistics. His first philosophical work, The Soul of the Universe,
was published in 1940 (David McKay Company, Philadelphia, Pa.), wherein
the philosophical implications of modern science, especially in the domain
of genetics and biology, were discussed from a totally new viewpoint.
Particular emphasis was given to the origin of organization in the living
world, the relationship of mind to matter, and the origin of our own
Dr. Stromberg became a U. S. citizen in 1922. At the New York Fair of 1940, his name was listed on the "Wall of Fame" which contained names of citizens of foreign birth who have made "outstanding contributions to American culture."
Intuitive students of the Ancient Wisdom will recognize the "bridges" of thought which Dr. Stromberg is building between Science and the Esoteric Philosophy by means of his remarkable writings. Nothing would please us better than to see the present article translated into foreign languages and reprinted in Theosophical magazines abroad, for the benefit of other students.
The third of June 1948 an event took place which was hailed as of the greatest importance in the history of science. This event was the dedication of the Hale Observatory at Palomar in Southern California. On that day and in the presence of about 800 invited guests the new observatory was formally turned over to the California Institute of Technology, which, in co-operation with the Carnegie Institution of Washington, will administer the new institution. It is the largest observatory in the world, and the building cost so far has amounted to six and a half million dollars. It has been named after the late Dr. George Ellery Hale, the founder and former director of the Mount Wilson Observatory, who prepared the plans and secured the necessary funds from the Rockefeller Foundation. The main instrument of the new observatory is a large reflector having as its light-gathering element a concave mirror with a diameter of 200 inches. This telescope is 55 feet long and weighs 140 tons. Next in importance among the instruments is a 48-inch Schmodt camera, a recently developed reflecting telescope by the aid of which large areas of the sky can be photographed by a single exposure. It will be used for surveying and for the selection of objects to be studied in more detail by the larger telescope. There can be no doubt that these two instruments will enable astronomers to reach into hitherto unexplored regions of the universe.
The horizon that limits man's vision, his physical as well as his mental vision, is steadily pushed farther and farther away. As one horizon disappears, another one takes its place. So it his been in the past, and so it will certainly be in the future. The field of vision of early man was determined by his unaided eyes. The moon, the sun, and the stars did not appear very far away, and they were evidently put in the sky for the benefit of man. Beyond the sphere to which the stars were attached was "Heaven," where God ruled and the beatified souls gathered to worship Him. This conception of the Universe was shattered in 1610, when Galileo  first pointed his newly constructed telescope to the heavens. He saw myriads of stars where only a few were visible to the naked eye. He looked at the planet Jupiter and saw four stars circling the planet, and he immediately realized the similarity with the earth and its moon. Galileo became all ardent advocate of Copernicus' theory, published in 1543, that the sun was the center of the universe and that the earth and the planets were moving around it. In 1600 Giordano Bruno had been burned at the stake in Rome for having taught this theory and for having claimed that the universe was a living cosmos. Modern astronomy was born the night when Galileo first turned his small telescope towards the stars - but the more fundamental nature of the universe was understood, not by Galileo, but by Bruno.
During the three centuries following Galileo's discoveries astronomy and other physical sciences developed at an increasing rate. Newton's laws of motion were a direct result of Galileo's measurements, and it became possible to apply exact mathematical methods for computing the orbits of celestial bodies. The sun with its family of planets has been found to be all insignificant part of a great star system, the Milky Way or Galaxy, and space, as far as our greatest telescopes can reach, seems to be populated with galaxies comparable to our own galactic system. The science of physics has taught us to interpret the lines in the spectra of the stars, and even to form ideas about the nature of the source of energy that maintains their heat. The main principles of the energy production in the atomic bomb were based on knowledge derived from the study of the stars.
One of the principal purposes of the great telescope at Palomar is to study the distant galaxies which are too faint to be seen in any of our largest telescopes, although they can be observed on photographs of long exposure. What do we expect to find in these far recesses of the universe? Something which we can not find closer to the earth? Any new type of stars, or matter in an hitherto unknown state? Nothing of the sort. At least very few of the experts expect any startling discoveries along this line. We expect to find the same kind of stars and galaxies with which we are already familiar. The reason for this statement is that the properties of matter appear to be the same everywhere. They are the same in a physical laboratory on the earth as in the most distant corner of the universe, and the physical laws appear to be the same everywhere, quantitatively as well as qualitatively. This remarkable uniformity of the physical universe is in itself a highly significant fact, and it throws much light, not so much on the nature of the material world, but rather on the nature and origin of the human mind.
There are some specific problems for the solution of which the new telescope will be used in the immediate future. We want to know whether the universe is finite or infinite, and, if finite, how large it is and how much matter it contains. We want to know whether light during its long travel during thousands of millions of years loses some of its energy, whether a light beam moves in a straight or a curved path when traversing large distances, whether, as our observations indicate, the galaxies are actually receding from us and from one another, and what happens when the speed of recession becomes comparable to that of light. Many problems related to the evolution of the material universe are involved in these questions. We want to know, not so much what the stars "are," but rather what is happening in the universe it large,
Let us suppose that we could find satisfactory answers to these and similar questions. Might not the knowledge of the immensity of the universe make us realize the insignificance of man and the utter futility of all his efforts? The sun's heat will dwindle, the earth will be completely covered with perpetual ice, and all organic life will disappear from the earth. It might  therefore appear that the acts and thoughts of men represented only an interesting but insignificant interlude in the history of the earth and that nothing can apparently escape ultimate destruction. The heavens may reveal the glory of God, but the God revealed by our modern astronomers seems to have no concern for man and is not interested in his puny efforts.
Fortunately, the story of the universe which the astronomers can give us is a relatively insignificant part of a greater cosmic drama. Their story is based exclusively on a particular type of code signals, which we call electro-magnetic radiation; in common language we call them light. A beam of light from a star can no more reveal its true nature than a photograph of a man can by itself reveal his thoughts, his memories, and his character. Astronomy, like physics, can only reveal space and time properties, but the underlying substance that has these properties belongs to a realm to which no reference is made in our scientific text books. When a physicist speaks about atoms he has in mind a complex of sensations and a model constructed from such sensations, but the very essence of an atom can no more be described by a mathematical expression than can a man's. Beyond the physical world there is a non-physical world which can not be described in terms of reproducible measurements. Atoms and stars, plants and animals, our body and our brain, are the physical manifestations of activities in a non-physical world. We have reasons to believe that all our activities and thoughts are indelibly recorded in a cosmic memory.
According to the most advanced theory of the origin of the material universe something happened about two billion years ago. Then the material universe started at a single point where an enormous explosion took place. All the matter in the present universe was then born as neutrons, and the eruption lasted only 300 seconds. In the following hour all the atomic nuclei of the chemical elements were formed. It is the effects of this cataclysm we now observe as stars and galaxies. After some more billions of years their energy will be dissipated, and darkness will again settle over the universe.
This emergence of energy, which lasted some tens of billions of years, was only a short intermezzo in the larger cosmic drama, however. The drama itself was played, not on a physical, but on a non-physical level. Before, during, and after this short intermezzo was GOD. And so were we.
It is logical to consider that the term Theosophist is to be applied to a follower of Theosophia - the Wisdom of the Divine, in its many and every-changing aspects.
But Wisdom is a quality of spiritual consciousness. It implies intellectual knowledge but transcends it. It is intimately connected with the Mind, yet is immensely superior to it. It is applied knowledge of spiritual truths. Therefore, a Theosophist is one who has acquired at least a certain degree of spiritual wisdom.
No one becomes a Theosophist by merely following an intellectual doctrine, however grand it may be. It is hardly possible to become one by the mere fact of professing a certain set of beliefs, however inspiring, because beliefs are not knowledge, let alone wisdom in action.
There has grown up in the Theosophical Organizations of the present century a marked tendency to misuse the term of Theosophist, and to apply it to all and sundry who subscribe to certain religio-philosophical beliefs, the actual truths of which they cannot prove either to themselves or to others, or to such people as have acquired an intellectual understanding of ancient  spiritual teachings without any ethical application to their lives. This tendency is to be regretted. It has helped to confuse the issue and to erect various artificial barriers in the path of the student. It has been instrumental, moreover, in encouraging a certain degree of sectarianism and dogmatism of thought - which invariably follow in the wake of mere beliefs - in a realm where utter freedom of conscience, and plasticity of ideas, should prevail, unhampered by human crystallizations.
In this regard, the Theosophical climate of the twentieth century has experienced a considerable change, as compared with the early years in the lifetime of H.P. Blavatsky herself.
From the very inception of the modern Theosophical Movement, the term of Theosophist had its broad meaning, as well as its more specific and what might be called, its technical significance. But under no circumstances whatsoever, was it applied to the expounder of any set doctrine or belief, as such, and had no creedal meaning.
The latter could not have been possible anyway. We must remember that up to 1879 at least - i.e., some four years after the launching of The Theosophical Society - very little systemic, coherent, technical teaching of the Esoteric Philosophy had been given out, as will become evident to any student who would care to familiarize himself with the early Theosophical writings, which include Isis Unveiled. No one could possibly have been classified as a Theosophist on the basis of either "believing" in, or professing an intellectual understanding of, doctrines and teachings which were at the time withheld for later years.
Theosophist, in its broad sense, meant a Searcher after Truth, an original thinker. This is evident from the famous passage to be found in H.P. Blavatsky's outstanding article entitled "What Are the Theosophists?", published in the first issue of The Theosophist, October, 1879:
"As a body, the Theosophical Society holds that all original thinkers and investigators of the hidden side of nature whether materialists - those who find matter 'the promise and potency of all terrestrial life,' or spiritualists - that is, those who discover in spirit the source of all energy and of matter as well, were and are, properly, Theosophists. For to be one, one need not necessarily recognize the existence of any special God or a deity. One need but worship the spirit of living nature, and try to identify oneself with it. To revere that Presence, the invisible Cause. which is yet ever manifesting itself in its incessant results; the intangible, omnipotent, and omnipresent Proteus: indivisible in its Essence and eluding form, yet appearing under all and every form; who is here and there and everywhere and nowhere; is ALL and NOTHING; ubiquitous yet one; the Essence filling, binding, bounding, containing everything; contained in all, it will, we think, be seen now, that whether classed as Theists, Pantheists or Atheist, such men are all near kinsmen to the rest. Be what he may, once that a student abandons the old and trodden highway of routine, and enters upon the solitary path of independent thought - Godward - he is a Theosophist; an original thinker, a seeker after the eternal truth with 'an inspiration of his own' to solve the universal problem."
In such a definition there is not one word about this, that, or another belief: there is no intimation of the teachings of Reincarnation or Karma or Hierarchies or Cycles, or any other, being bases or at least clues to the classification of any man or woman as a Theosophist. Any progressive individual, imbued with a love for the discovery of Truth, or any aspect of it, seeking to unravel the tangled threads of life and to uncover the mystery of being, can rightfully claim for himself the title of Theosophist. So much for the broader meaning of the term.
From a more specific and technical standpoint, however, the term of Theosophist had a much more restricted meaning, though again utterly devoid of any creedal association or connotation. To quote form H.P.B.'s The Key to Theosophy:
"... no Theosophist has the right to this name unless he is thoroughly imbued with the correctness of Carlyle's truism: 'The end of man is an action and not a thought, though it were the noblest' - and unless he sets and models his daily life upon this truth. The profession of  a truth is not yet the enactment of it; and the more beautiful and grand it sounds, the more loudly virtue or duty is talked about instead of being acted upon, the more forcibly it will always remind one of the Dead Sea fruit. Cant is the most loathsome of all vices ..." (p. 230.)
The following definition, touched in negative terms, deserves a most careful study. It appears in Lucifer (London), Vol, I, November 1887, p. 169. H.P.B. evidently quotes the passage from some higher source:
"He who does not practice altruism; he who is not prepared to share his last morsel with a weaker or, poorer than himself - he who neglects to help his brother man of whatever race, nation, or creed, whenever and wherever he meets suffering, and who turns a deaf ear to the cry of human misery; he who hears an innocent person slandered, whether a brother Theosophist or not, and does not undertake his defense as he would undertake his own - is no Theosophist'."
The marked difference between the broad meaning of the term, in the sense of Seeker, and the more technical significance of it, implying not only knowledge of certain spiritual truths but their application to life, is very clearly set forth by H.P.B. in another passage from her Key (pp. 19-20.):
"The members of the Theosophical Society at large are free to profess whatever religion or philosophy they like, or none if they so prefer, provided they are in sympathy with, and ready to carry out one or more of the three objects of the Association. The Society is a philanthropic and scientific body for the propagation of the idea of brotherhood on practical instead of theoretical lines. The Fellows may be Christians or Musselmen, Jews or Parsees, Buddhists or Brahmins, Spiritualists or Materialists, it does not matter; but every member must be either a philanthropist, or a scholar, a searcher into Aryan and other old literature, or in short, he has to help, if he can, in the carrying out of at least one of the objects of the programme. Otherwise he has no reason for becoming a 'Fellow.' Such are the majority of the exoteric Society, composed of 'attached' and 'unattached' members. These may, or may not, become Theosophists de facto. Members they are, by virtue of their having joined the society; but the latter cannot make a Theosophist of one who has no sense for the divine fitness of things, or of him who understands Theosophy in his own - if the expression may be used - sectarian and egotistic way. 'Handsome is, as handsome does' could be paraphrased in this case and be made to run: 'Theosophist is, who Theosophy does'."
The italicized words in the above passage should be given special attention by the student. H.P.B. underlined and capitalized her words with a definite end in view. This fact has not been duly recognized by certain portions of the Theosophical Movement, with the unfortunate result that the original texts of her writings have been severely tampered with, thereby changing the meaning of many a passage.
From the quotations referred to, and from other statements with which early Theosophical history abounds, it is evident that no amount of belief, however sincere, is sufficient to make of a man or women a Theosophist, not even if these beliefs are in complete alignment with such doctrines as Reincarnation, Karma, Cycles, and the like. Such beliefs do not constitute knowledge, nor do they presuppose wisdom.
It is equally true, however, that no matter what may be the beliefs of a human being, however relatively false they may be, if and when compared with higher knowledge, or however "un-believing" the individual may be, and skeptically inclined, he nevertheless can very well be counted as a Theosophist, if his heart is moved by a search for truth, his life motivated by a sincere desire to do good to others, and his mind fired with the idea of universal brotherhood and peace. He may even have already acquired a modicum of wisdom in the pursuit and the practical application of his ideals.
There exists, very unfortunately a tendency in the present-day Theosophical Movement to disparage the beliefs of some students, and to ridicule or minimize the efforts of other students who are trying with sincerity, even if unwisely, to penetrate the domain of the unexplored powers of man.
There exists also a widely-spread deprecation of sincere religious beliefs on the part of certain students  who have not come to the point in their evolution when some wider and more universal ideas will take the place of their present beliefs.
These tendencies are very unfortunate. They are to be deplored mainly on account of the fact that no mere belief is of any particular importance, as compared with the pattern of a man's living, and with the practical example which he may set; nor do his beliefs describe, even remotely, the intensity of his spiritual aspirations or his love for his fellow-men.
The Theosophical Movement in its organized form has shown for many years a great many crystallizations of thought, and the elasticity and fluidity of early years has given way, in some places, to a sectarian view of things, so that the terms Theosophy and Theosophist are sometimes defined with a degree of finality which is totally foreign to their very nature. As a matter of fact, these terms are not to be defined in any brief and concise manner, which in itself shows the universality of the terms and their non-dogmatic and unsectarian spirit.
The Original Program of the Theosophical Movement is not synonymous with going "back to Blavatsky." It is not a matter of going "back" at all. Nor is it even a matter of rushing "forward" at all costs. It is rather the considered, quiet, firm, and unshakable adherence to the principles of the Theosophical Movement of all ages, as these principles and foundations have never altered, as far as out knowledge goes. And that Original Program, whether worded in this, that, or another manner, calls for utter and complete Universality of thought, a genuine feeling of Oneness of all that lives, a realization of the fundamental unity of all mankind and of the common root of its religious and philosophic beliefs. lt calls for integration of effort, unification of plans, synthesis of ideals. It demands Unity in Diversity, solidarity in endless variety of form. It aims at achieving in due course of time a state of inner integration and outer harmony which will radically alter all beliefs which are not based on knowledge, and will bring forth that wisdom in action which only experience and suffering can ever bring to birth.
Seeking for Theosophists, therefore, we are in search of those men and women whose sympathies are universal, whose interests are global in scope, and whose dynamic faith and trust in the inherent goodness of man inspire their lives and actions with a quality of spiritual momentum which transcends all human superstitions and leaps victorious over the selfish battlements erected by the inertia of the age.
Whatever their temporary beliefs may be, these men and women are the builders of the future, the heralds of a greater age, the building bricks of a nobler superstructure, raised upon more enduring foundations than those of the former age.
Having glimpsed the Whole through the bewildering variety of its partial manifestations, they attempt to conform their lives to the current which flows through Nature - unimpeded by mere form. Having caught a vision of man's indwelling potentialities, over and above and beyond his temporary failings, they stand upon surer foundations of spiritual realization than the mere intellectual student whose mental concepts may be in perfect accord with the teachings of the Esoteric Philosophy, but whose life-sap is diverted into traditional moulds and outworn patterns preventing him from soaring into the light of it dawning age.
The Theosophical Movement is essentially a Movement of Spiritual Pioneers. Irrespective of the limitations of its present organizational forms, the Movement is pre-eminently the home of the spiritual Youth of the human race, those men and women of every clime, and in every walk of life, whose spiritual stratospheres are lit by the mystic light of inner knowledge, whose lives are dedicated to the Cause of human perfection, and whose aspirations are linked with the silences beyond the stars. 
The legend of Lilith - Queen Demon, vampire, ruler of the night - is found in many places among the old records. An ancient Chaldean inscription says "When a country is at peace, Lilith (Lilatu) is not before them." This form of the name is probably derived from the earlier Assyrian lay'la, a word referring to sorcery. In Hebrew, the word Lil, or Lilah, derived from the same source, meant night.
Dr. Wynn Wescott, a deep scholar in Semitic literature and the Qabbalah, wrote as follows about this subject:
"Concerning Lilith, or Lilis, there is an immense collection of fables. In some she is a woman of pre-Adamic race, whom Adam found, and she was his first wife, and she begat demons. ... Again, she is a general succubus at all times. ... Again, that she is a vampire always seeking to kill infants; and again, that she seeks to kill men also, and that no man is safe who sleeps in a house alone, for he may thus be captured as Adam was. ... Lilith means a dust cloud, but is also translated as Owl, and as a Screeching Bird of Night." (Quoted in Sepharial's Science of Foreknowledge, Pages 51-52.)
In the Christian Bible the word is used in Isaiah 34:14, but the King James version renders it as "screech owl," with the annotation "or, night monster." The American Revised edition treats it as "night monster," and directly connects it with the Hebrew "Lilith" by a marginal note.
H.P. Blavatsky, writing in The Secret Doctrine, says:
"... with the Fourth Race we reach the purely human period. Those who were hitherto semi-divine Beings ... took unto themselves wives who were entirely human and fair to look at, but in whom lower, more material, though sidereal, beings had incarnated. These being in female forms (Lilith is the prototype of these in the Jewish traditions) are called in the esoteric accounts 'Khado' (Dakini, in Sanskrit) ... all are credited with the art of 'walking in the air,' and the greatest kindness to mortals; but no mind - only animal instinct." (Vol. II, pp. 284-285, See also Vol. II, p. 262.)
In our article on Vulcan* (*See "Vulcan, the Intra-Mercurial Planet" in Theosophia, March-April, 1948.) it was pointed out that there was an exact description of this intra-Mercurial planet in the Greek mythological story of Vulcan. The same would appear to be true of the legends of Lilith - that these refer to an astronomical body not yet recognized by science - the second, dark moon of the Earth.
The fact that the Earth might possess more than one satellite was recognized about the middle of the last century, when a French astronomer, Frederic Petit of Toulouse, published some calculations which he had made. These indicated that there might possibly exist a small moon, perhaps not more than a mile or so in diameter, at a distance of approximately 4,700 miles from the earth, traveling with a speed of five miles per second, so that it would make a complete revolution of the earth in about three and one-third hours.
While Petit's speculations were not confirmed, they came to the attention of the great fantasy novelist, Jules Verne, and were used by him in his story "Round the Moon," the sequel to "From the Earth to the Moon." The idea that a second moon could exist was born, although nothing was done to verify it at the time.
The subject was raised again in 1889, when H. P. Blavatsky wrote:
" ... in the Eastern esoteric philosophy ... the Moon [is] a dead planet, from which all the principles are gone, [being a substitute) ... for a planet which seems to have now altogether disappeared from view." (The Secret Doctrine, Vol. III, p. 459.)
In the same year, during one of her visits to the Theosophical Lodge in London which bore her name, H.P. Blavatsky was asked several questions about her references to esoteric astronomy in her writings. To one of these she answered:
"... our Earth was never numbered  among the seven sacred planets of the ancients, though in exoteric popular astrology it stood as a substitute for a secret planet now lost to astronomy, yet well known to initiated specialists. Nor were the Sun or the Moon in that number, though accepted in our day by modern astrology; for the Sun is a Central Star, and the Moon a dead planet. ...
"Question: Can you tell us something of the planets for which the sun and the moon were substitutes?
"Answer: There is no secret in it, though out modern astrologers are ignorant of these planets. One is an intra-Mercurial planet which is supposed to have been discovered and named by anticipation Vulcan, and the other a planet with a retrograde motion, sometimes visible at a certain hour of night and apparently near the moon. The occult influence of this planet is transmitted by the moon.
"Question: What is it that makes these planets sacred or secret?
"Answer: Their occult influence, as far as I know." (Transactions of the Blavatsky Lodge, pp. 47-43.)
On February 7, 1898, Dr. Georges Waltemath, astronomer of Hamburg, Germany, published an article on his researches in this field. In addition to having observed to unidentified body himself, on October 6, 1897, at about 10:00 p.m., Dr. Waltemath collected a number of reports made by other observers. Of the most recent ones at that time, and therefore the most easily verifiable, one was of a dark body crossing the Sun on February, 16, 1897, seen by observers at both Munchen and Stuttgart, Germany.
The other was of two dark bodies crossing the Sun on the same day, at different times. One such observation was made at Wiesbaden, on February 4, 1898, at 8:15 a.m. The second was made at Greifswald, by Poste-Director Ziegler and eleven other persons, at 1:30. p.m. of the same day.
According to Weston's "Vulcan, the Intra-Mercurial Planet," Vulcan was due to transit the Sun on this day. Therefore, one of the observations must have been of Vulcan, and the other of Lilith, the dark moon.
Dr. Waltemath calculated Lilith to have a sidereal period of approximately 119 days, and thus a synodic revolution of 177 days. Although only about one-fourth of the diameter of the Earth's primary moon (Luna), its mass is almost the same, thus making it an extremely dense, heavy body. The distance of Lilith from the Earth was estimated at about three times that of Luna.
Richard A. Proctor, the British astronomer, was of the opinion that the Sun had planetary bodies of non-luminous material moving about it, as well as the luminous ones which are visible to the eye and the telescope. If Lilith is composed of such non-luminous material, as seems likely, it would thus only be visible when transiting the Sun, or under certain conditions which occur only at long intervals.
Other observations, which Dr. Waltemath believed to be of Lilith, were those of June 6, 1761, by Scheuten; November 19, 1762, by Lichtenberg and Sollintz, at Erlangen; May 3, 1764, by Hoffman; June 11, 1855, by Ritter (this observation was the one which, in 1857, awakened the Vulcan controversy); and a report of a body at an elongation of 148 degrees from the Sun made on October 24, 1881.
Three other observations which might seem to refer to Lilith are those of Riccioli on September 2, 1618, which he called "a fiery red globe" - a body "like a red Sun with, a white line across it," seen in Hungary on December 23, 1719; and an "ample Sun of the night," seen and pointed by a Reverend Ziegler at Gotha on June 29, 1735. These appearances would all seem to be under the conditions mentioned by H.P. Blavatsky, "at a certain hour of night and apparently near the moon."
The astrologer Sepharial, who was a deep student of the writings of H.P. Blavatsky, stated in his Science of Foreknowledge:
"The influence of Lilith is undoubtedly obstructive and fatal, productive of various forms of catastrophes and accidents, sudden upsets, changes, and states of confusion." (Page 51.)
"... the nature of Lilith Is violent and subversive, destructive and sinister." (Page 57.)
Unfortunately, exact tables of the motion and positions of Lilith have not  been constructed, as they have for Vulcan. Some speculative ephemerides do exist, but they cannot be considered accurate, since the motion of Lilith appears to be quite eccentric, and it may be some time before such tables can be drawn up. A magazine titled Lilith which dealt with both the astronomical and astrological aspects of its discovery was published in Holland in 1923 and 1924,* (*Most writers on this subject state, without verification, that there was an "astronomical observatory" devoted to the search for Lilith, at Utrecht. This would appear to be inaccurate, and is apparently derived from garbled reports of the existence of the magazine, titled Lilith. This magazine is extremely rare and was probably published for a comparatively short time. My collection contains only five copies, the last of which is Number Seven, dated March, 1924.) but general interest in the subject has been rather sporadic.
To quote again from Sepharial's Science and Foreknowledge, pp. 52 and 53. After a discussion of the details given by H.P. Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine concerning Lilith, he says:
"... a considerable research already made has revealed the influence of Lilith (the satellite) to be just that which the Hebrews ascribed to Lilith (the mother of devils). ...
"Those who understand that a myth is a veil will not be content to scan the literal tradition, but will further seek to know and understand what truth lies behind the veil."
In conclusion, the reader's attention may be drawn to a passage in Dr. G. de Purucker's Fundamentals of the Esoteric Philosophy (p. 300), wherein, speaking of the seven Sacred Planets of the ancients, he says:
"With regard to the, seventh mentioned above, which is the 'lowest' of our seven sacred planets, the one esoterically spoken of as 'near the moon,' that planet is in its last or seventh Round, and is therefore dying. The probability is that it also, to our present physical senses, is more or less ethereal, and therefore practically invisible, except in certain very favorable conditions. Before our planet shall have reached its last or seventh Round, our Moon will have disintegrated into stellar dust, but by that time this secret or mystery-planet 'near the moon' and now dying, will be dead, and will be to us as a moon; not a true moon in the sense of our lunar mother, but rather a satellite. It will appear to us as a moon; and, indeed, will be a 'moon,' because it will he a dead body."
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, aged forty-two years, landed at New York on July 7, 1873. We know two things which she did the next day, and which therefore must have been of pressing importance to her.
First, she went to the proper authorities and registered herself as an intending citizen of the United States of America. We know she did this because of a letter she wrote to her aunt Nadezhda A. Fadeyev on the day, five years later, when her citizenship became a fact. Here is part of that letter:
"My dearest, I write to you because otherwise I would burst with a strange feeling which is positively suffocating me. It is the 8th of July today, an ominous day for me, but God only knows whether the omen is good or bad. Today it is exactly five years and one day since I came to America, and this moment I have just returned from the Supreme Court where I gave my oath of allegiance to the American Republic and Constitution. Now for a whole hour I have been a citizen with equal rights to the President himself. So far so good: the workings of my original destiny have forced me into this naturalization. ..." (The Path, New York, Vol. ix, February, 1895, p. 385.)
Why was she "forced ... into this naturalization" by "the workings" of  her "original destiny"? That original destiny had given her a heredity of Russian intermixed with German and French blood. Looking into the future and seeing that she was to live and work in India, this was an impossibility for a Russian aristocrat. True, she had been in India before, but in disguise: "people taking me for what I liked," she said. But in 1879, even as an American citizen, she was shadowed and kept under closest observation during her first year at Bombay, and only vigorous protest brought it to an end.
The second thing she did on that momentous day, July 8, 1873, was to visit Henry Slade, the medium, in order to receive a message from his slates. She did receive a communication; but its purport remains a mystery, for it was in the Russian language, of which Slade knew not a word.
She was promptly discovered by the press in the person of Miss Anna Ballard, who wrote to Col. Henry. S. Olcott in 1892:
"My acquaintance with Mme. Blavatsky dates even further back than you suppose. I met her in July, 1873, at New York, not more than .a week after she landed. I was then a reporter on the staff of the New York Sun, and had been detailed to write an article upon a Russian subject. In the course of my search after facts the arrival of this Russian lady was reported to me by a friend, and I called upon her; thus beginning an acquaintance that lasted several years. At our first interview she told me she had had no idea of leaving Paris for America until the very evening before she sailed, but why she came or who hurried her off she did not say. I remember perfectly well her saying with an air of exultation, 'I have been in Tibet." Why she should think that a great matter, more remarkable than any other travels in Egypt, India, and other countries she told me about, I could not make out, but she said it with special emphasis and animation. I now know, of course, what it means." (Old Diary Leaves, i, pp. 21-22.)
Miss Ballard found her living in a tenement house in an East-end New York street, pending the arrival of money from home, and honestly supporting herself. Although she did not learn it for some time, her father, Col. Peter Alexeyevich von Hahn, had died in the very month of her arrival. For some strange reason, possibly due to the fact that her family did not know her whereabouts, she was not apprized of his death until the following October, 1873, through a cable from her half-sister Liza, informing her of the amount of her heritage, and saying that 1,000 rubles had been sent to her. She had gone to the Russian consul for a loan, but he refused it. Her circumstances must have been quite hard. Of this initial period in America, Col. Olcott says:
"Among other things about herself H.P.B. told me, when I had got along far enough to know of the Brotherhood and her relation with it, that she had come to Paris the previous year (1873) intending to settle down for some time under the Protection of a relative of hers, residing in the Rue de l'Universite, but one day received from the 'Brothers' a peremptory order to go to New York to await further orders.
"The next day she had sailed with little more than enough money to pay her passage. She wrote to her father for funds to be sent her in care of the Russian consul in New York, but this could not arrive for some time, and as the consul refused her a loan, she had to set to work to earn her daily bread. She told me she had taken lodgings in one of the poorest quarters in New York - Madison Street - and supported herself by making cravats or artificial flowers - I forget which now - for a kind-hearted Hebrew shop-keeper. She always spoke to me with gratitude about this little man. As yet she had received no intimation as to  the future, it was a sealed book. ..." (Old Diary Leaves, i, p. 20.)
In connection with her transatlantic journey, it is rumored that she exchanged her first class ticket for a third class one, in order to pay the passage of a poor working woman and her two children, who had been sold a bogus ticket by a swindling agent.
Two interesting incidents emerge from the relative blank of those fifteen original months which preceded H.P.B.'s meeting with Col. Olcott. The first is a story related by Col. Olcott, and which might explain her sudden departure for America and the necessity for her presence in New York State in 1873. He says:
"When H.P.B. was ordered from Paris to New York in 1873, she soon found herself in the most dismal want, having, as stated in a previous chapter, to boil her coffee-dregs over and over again for lack of pence for buying a fresh supply; and to keep off starvation, at last had to work with her needle for a maker of cravats. She got no presents from unexpected sources, found no fairy-gold in her mattress on waking in the morning. The time was not yet. But, although she was in such stark poverty herself, she had lying in her trunk for some time after arriving a large sum of money (I think something like 23,000 francs) which had been confided to her by the Master, to await orders. The order finally came to her to go to Buffalo. Where that was or how to reach it, she had not the remotest idea until she enquired: What to do at Buffalo? 'No matter what: take the money with you.' On reaching her destination she was told to take a hack and drive to such an address, and give the money to such and such a person; to make no explanation, but 'to take his receipt and come away, She did so: the man was found at the address given, and found in peculiar conditions. He was writing a fare-well letter to his family, with a loaded pistol on the table with which he would have shot himself in another half hour if H.P.B. had not come. It seems - as she told me subsequently - that this was a most worthy man who had been robbed of the 23,000 francs in some peculiar way that made it necessary, for the sake of events that would subsequently happen as a consequence - events of importance to the world - that he should have the money restored to him at a particular crisis, and H.P.B. was the agent deputed to this act of beneficence. ..." (Old Diary Leaves, i, pp. 440-441.)
The other significant fact is that a campaign of preparation was being conducted from the Orient, a ploughing of the soil of the United States for the coming of the New Truth. In her first Scrapbook Madam Blavatsky has pasted an article called "Proselyters from India," by Herbert Monachesi, one of the Founders of the Theosophical Society, which appeared in The Sunday Mercury, New York, October 6, 1875. It is stated therein that two missionaries were sent from the Orient to the United States in 1870 - Mooljee Thakersey and Tulsidas Jadarjee. Strangely enough, Col. Olcott crossed the Atlantic on the same ship with them. He was an authority on agriculture, had written a book on that subject and attended an Agricultural Conference in England in 1870.
These two gentlemen duly reported need of reform. Others had gone to Europe and Australia. They took back with them newspapers to show the state of Christian society - murder, rape, theft, poisoning, forgery, drunkenness, suicides, adulteries, infanticides, etc. Articles along this line continued to appear in the American press during some years. In fact they were still going on when Madam Blavatsky and Col. Olcott left the United States for India.
One such Buddhist missionary  brought a letter from her Master Morya. Writing of it to her family, she says:
"... As to the Sahib, I have known him a long time. Twenty-five years ago he came to London with the Prince of Nepaul; three years ago he sent me a letter by an Indian who came here to lecture about Buddhism. In this letter he reminded me of many things, foretold by him at the time, and asked me whether I believed him now and whether I would consent to obey him, to avoid complete destruction. ...'." (The Path, New York, Vol. ix, January, 1895, pp. 298-99.)
What was she doing that could involve "complete destruction"? All the contumely heaped upon her name later, after 'the Hodgson Report to the Society for Psychical Research', and the Coulomb affair in 1883, consisted of accusations of charlatanism and sex scandals, which have been conclusively disposed of. What, then, was she doing in New York which so incensed her Master?
It is quite possible that the answer may lie in an article written by Dr. A. L. Rawson (Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, Vol. xxxiii, Feb., 1892) on "Madame Blavatsky: A Theosophical Occult Apology," in which he says:
"She had tried hasheesh in Cairo with success, and she again indulged in it in this city under the care of myself and Dr. Edward Sutton Smith, who had had a large experience with the drug among his patients at Mount Lebanon, Syria."
Dr. Rawson had known H. P. Blavatsky for a period of forty years and must have known what he was talking about, strange though this event may seem to be.
"Every new opinion, at its starting, is precisely in the minority of one. In one man's head alone, it dwells as yet. One man alone of the whole world believes it."
This very nearly represents the position of Occultism in America in the year 1874. The one person who knew was not a man, but a woman - Helena Blavatsky. The task entrusted to her, her mission, was to spread her knowledge of Occultism - a tremendous task for one woman to accomplish.
But, her own Teacher directed her. We know how this direction came from time to time, and we have it from her own statements. Thus she wrote;
"In March, 1873, we were directed to proceed from Russia to Paris. In June we were told to proceed to the United States, where we arrived July, 6th [7th]. ... In October, 1874, we received an intimation to go to Chittenden, Vermont, where, at the famous homestead of the Eddy family, Colonel Olcott was engaged in making his investigations. ..." (The Theosophist, Vol. iii, July, 1881, p. 244.)
It was on October 14, 1874, more than a year after arrival, that she met Col. Henry S. Olcott. He had been employed by the New York Daily Graphic, an illustrated paper, to investigate the phenomena of the then famous Eddy brothers. His letters appeared twice a week in the above-mentioned paper, and H.P.B. was conversant with them, before she went to Chittenden. She wrote:
"I was sent to America on purpose, and sent to the Eddys. ... I was ordered to let him know that spiritual phenomena without the philosophy of occultism were dangerous and misleading." (The Path, New York, Vol. x, March, 1896.)
At this time she also wrote to her sister Vera Petrovna Zhelihovsky as follows:
"I went on purpose to a family of strong mediums - the Eddys - and watched for over a fortnight, making  experiments, which, of course, I kept to myself. ... You remember, Vera, how I made experiments for you at Rugodevo, how often I saw the ghosts of those who had been living in the house, and described them to you, for you could never see them. ... Well, it was the same daily and nightly in Vermont. I saw and watched these soulless creatures, the shadows of their terrestrial bodies, from which in most cases soul and spirit had fled long ago, but which throve and preserved their semi-material shadows, at the expense of the hundreds of visitors that came and went, as well as of the mediums. And I remarked, under the guidance of my Master, that (1) those apparitions which were genuine were produced by the 'ghosts' of those who had lived and died within a certain area of those mountains; (2) those who had died far away were less entire, a mixture of the real shadow, and of that which lingered in the personal aura of the visitor for whom it purported to come; and (3) the purely fictitious ones, or as I call them, the reflections of the genuine ghosts, or shadows of the deceased personality. To explain myself more clearly, it was not the spooks that assimilated the medium, but the medium who assimilated unconsciously to himself the pictures of the dead relatives and friends from the aura of the sitters. ..." (Incidents, pp. 177-78)
In a letter to the Editor of Light, the British Journal of Spiritualism, written from Elberfeld, Germany, September 10th, 1884, in answer to certain false views of Mr. Arthur Lillie, H.P. Blavatsky says:
"I say again, I never was a spiritualist. I have always known the reality of mediumistic phenomena, and defended that reality; that is all. If to have the whole long series of phenomena happen through one's organism, will, or any other agency, is to be a 'Spiritualist' then was I one, perhaps, fifty years ago, i.e., I was a Spiritualist before the truth of modern Spiritualism. As regards mediums' seances, the spiritualistic 'philosophy,' so-called - belief in the latter alone constituting a Spiritualist - then it may perhaps stagger your readers to learn that I had never known, nor even seen a medium, nor ever found myself in a seance room, before March, 1873, when I was passing through Paris on my way to America. And it was in August of the same year that I learned, for the first time in my life, what was the philosophy of the Spiritualists. Very true I had a general and very vague idea of the teachings of Allan Kardec since 1860. But when I heard stated the claims of the American Spiritualists, about the 'Summer Land,' etc. I rejected the whole thing point blank. I might name several persons in America as my witnesses if the testimony of Col. Olcott were not sufficient. ... Most decidedly I have seen forms called 'spirits' at Eddy's, and recognized, them; even to the form of my uncle (not my 'father' as Mr. Lillie affirms). But in some cases I had thought of them and wanted to see them. The objectivation of their astral forms was no proof at all that they were dead. I was making experiments, though Col. Olcott knew nothing of it, and so well did some of them succeed that I actually evoked among them the form of one whom I believed dead at the time, but, who, it now appears, was up to last year, alive and well: viz. 'Michalko,' my Georgian servant. He is now with a distant relative at Kutais, as my sister informed me two months ago, in Paris. He had been reported, and I thought him dead, but had got well at the hospital. So much for 'Spirit identification.'" ("Mr. A. Lillie" Light, London, October 11, 1884.) (To be concluded in the next issue.) 
THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY: Intern'l Hdqrts., Adyar, Madras, India. C. Jinarajadasa,
President. Off. Organ of the Pres.: The Theosophist.
THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY: Intern'l Hdqrts., Covina, Calif., U.S.A. Arthur
L. Conger, Leader. Off. Organ: The Theosophical Forum.
THE UNITED LODGE OF THEOSOPHISTS: selected list of centers -
THE BLAVATSKY ASSOCIATION: 26 Bedford Gardens, Campden Hill, London, W.8, England.