Besant Annie Wood
1847 - 1933

   

Annie Besant, hči Williama Wooda in Emily Morris, se je rodila 1. oktobra leta 1847 v Claphamu, v Londonu. Njen oče je umrl, ko je bila stara le pet let. Mati je ni bila mogla preživljati, zato je prosila prijateljico, Ellen Marryat, da prevzame odgovornost za hčerkino odraščanje.

Pri devetnajstih je Annie srečala duhovnika Franka Besanta in pristala na zakon, v katerem je rodila hčerko in fantka, a bila tudi globoko nesrečna, ker se je njen neodvisni duh spopadal s moževimi tradicionalnimi pogledi, kar je nazadnje privedlo do ločitve.

Potem ko je zapustila moža, je Annie povsem zavrgla krščanstvo in se 1874 pridružila Secular Society in tesno sodelovala s Charlesom Bradlaughom, urednikom revije National Reformer in voditeljem sekularnega (posvetnega, ne-cerkvenega) gibanja, ter za revijo napisala številne članke o zakonu in pravicah žensk.

1877 je izdala knjigo The Laws of Population, ki je govorila o nadzorovanju rojstev in bila deležna velikega odmeva v javnosti. To delovanje jo je povezalo tudi s socialisti in Georgem Bernardom Shawom. Pridružila se je Social Democratic Federation in zasnovala lasten časopis The Link. Med drugimi je v njem leta 1888 objavila članek White Slavery, v katerem je opozorila na nečloveške razmere in nizke plače žensk v eni izmed tovarn. Naslednjega leta pa je sodelovala pri izdaji vplivne knjige Fabian Essays.

Istega leta, 1889, je Annie Besant dobila v roke knjigo The Secret Doctrine in se navdušila za Teozofijo. Poiskala je Heleno Petrovno Blavatsky, postala njena učenka in članica Theosophical Society, kateremu je posvetila svoje nadaljnje življenje.

1891 je nasledila H.P.B. kot voditeljica Esoteric Section, leta 1893 pa odpotovala v Indijo in nato istega leta v Chicagu zastopala društvo na World Parliament of Religions.

Na letni Konvenciji društva je imela prvo od svojih mnogih predavanj. Teozofijo in hindujsko filozofijo je predstavila tako blesteče, da si je takoj pridobila naklonjenost hindujske javnosti, ki jo je nato podprla v njenih reformnih prizadevanjih za družbeno, vzgojno in politično prenovo Indije, ki jo je začela leta 1898 z ustanovitvijo Central Hindu College v Benaresu.

Leta 1907 je bila po smrti polkovnika Olcotta izvoljena za predsednico društva, naslednje leto pa je zasnovala Theosophical Order of Service.

Leta 1910 pa je prevzela skrbništvo nad Krishnamurtijem in njegovim bratom ter navkljub težavam skrbela za njuno izobraževanje.

Mahatma Gandhi je rekel, da je Annie Besant prebudila Indijo iz spanja. Tako je leta 1916 ustanovila Home Rule League in bila leta 1917 izvoljena za predsednico Indian National Congress.

Poleg tega je bila Annie Besant dejavna tudi v okviru International Co-Freemasonry in Boy Scout Association ter se še nadalje vključevala v boj za pravice žensk in posvečala pisanju, saj je napisala številne teozofske knjige, ki sedaj spadajo med klasična teozofska dela.

Umrla je 20. septembra 1933 v Adyarju.

Annie Besant, daughter of William Wood and Emily Morris, was born in 1847, at Clapham, London. Her father died when she was only five years old. Annie's mother was unable to care for Annie, so she asked a friend, Ellen Marryat, to take responsibility for her daughter's upbringing.

When nineteen Annie met Rev. Frank Besant, agreed to marry him and soon gave birth to daughter and son. But she was deeply unhappy because her independent spirit clashed with the traditional views of her husband and divorced.

After leaving her husband Annie Besant completely rejected Christianity and, in 1874, joined the Secular Society, developed a close relationship with Charles Bradlaugh, editor of the radical National Reformer and leader of the secular movement, and wrote for the magazine many articles on marriage and women's rights.

In 1877 she published a book The Laws of Population, wherein she wrote on birth control and which received wide echo in the public. This work drew her near to the socialists such as George Bernard Shaw. She joined the Social Democratic Federation and started her own newspaper called The Link. There she published article White Slavery and drew attention to the unhuman conditions and low wages in one of the factories. Next year she contributed to the influencial book, Fabian Essays.

When, in 1889, came to her hands The Secret Doctrine she immediately interested herself for the Theosophy. She sought out Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, became her disciple and joined the Theosophical Society for which she worked for the rest of her life.

In 1891 she succeeded H.P.B. as the Head of Esoteric Section and in 1893 departed for India. The same year Annie represented the society at the World Parliament of Religions.

At the Annual Convention she gave first of her many lectures. She presented Theosophy and Hindu Philosophy so brilliantly that the Hindu public cordially supported her, and readily joined in promoting the reforms she set in motion for the betterment of India, starting in 1898 with the foundation of the Central Hindu College in Benares.

In 1907, on the death of Colonel Olcott, she was elected the President and the following year formed a Theosophical Order of Service.

In 1910 she assumed the guardianship of J. Krishnamurti and his brother, and despite all difficulties took care for their education.

Mahatma Gandhi said that Annie Besant awoke India from the deep sleep. In 1916 she established the Indian Home Rule League and in 1917 she became the president of the Indian National Congress.

Besides her political work Annie Besant worked also for International Co-Freemasonry and the Boy Scout Association. She continued her struggle for women's rights and wrote an enormous number of books and pamphlets on theosophy, now classical theosophical works.

Annie Besant died in Adyar on September 20, 1933.

Njena dela in internetni viri

Her works and online resources

Svetišče Annie Besant - bibliografija Annie Besant Annie Besant Shrine - Bibliography of Annie Besant

Prastara Modrost
Grob oris teozofije
Beseda o človeku, o njegovi naravi in močeh
Religija sveta
Oris teozofije
Kristovi aspekti
Avtobiografija
1875 - 1891 Odlomek iz avtobiografije
Avatarji
Temelji morale
Bhagavad Gita (prevod)
Mesto Britanije v velikem načrtu
Gradnja kozmosa
Ustvarjanje značaja
Komunikacija med različnimi svetovi
Smrt - in potem?
Dharma
Učeništvo + nekateri karmični problemi
Nauk srca
Vzhod in zahod - usode narodov
Vzgoja v luči teozofije
Osnovne lekcije o karmi
Čustvo, razum in duhovnost
Anglija in Indija
Ezoterično krščanstvo
Evolucija in okultizem
Priročnik svobodomislecev I, II
Iz preddverja v notranje svetišče - (v pripravi)
Giordano Bruno
Velika Britanija in vojna
Hipnotizem in mesmerizem
Neposredna prihodnost
Otvoritev evropskega sedeža društva - 1890
Industrija v socializmu
Iniciacija, človekovo izpopolnjevanje
Notranja vlada sveta - (v pripravi)
V somraku
Uvod v yogo - (v pripravi)
Raziskovanje začetnih obhodov
Raziskovanje nad-fizičnega
Ali je teozofija anti-krščanska
Jainizem
Karma
Zakoni višjega življenja
Osvoboditev ali rešitev
Življenje in življenje po smrti
Življenje po smrti
Človek in njegova telesa
Človekovo življenje v tem in drugih svetovih
Človek: od kod, kako in kam
Materializem spodkopan od znanosti
India, zbudi se: poziv k družbeni preobrazbi
Mojstri - (v pripravi)
Spomini na pretekla življenja
Spomin
Sodobna znanost in višji jaz
Misticizem - knjiga
Misticizem - članek
Fine sile narave
Okultna kemija
Okultizem
Okultizem, pol-okultizem in pseudo-okultizem
O karmi
O razpoloženjih
O razodetjih
Bolečina - njen pomen in raba - (v pripravi)
Pot učeništva - (v pripravi)
Človekov rodovnik
Praktično delo za teozofe
Dokazi za obstoj duše
Psihični in duhovni razvoj
Javni duh, idealen in praktičen
Reinkarnacija - članek
Reinkarnacija - knjiga
Razodevanje, navdih, opazovanje
Skrivnost življenja
Jaz in njegovi ovoji - (v pripravi)
Človekovih sedem principov
Shri Ramachandra
Nekaj težav v zvezi z notranjim življenjem
Nekateri življenjski problemi
Duhovno življenje za posvetnega človeka
Študij zavesti - (v pripravi)
Študij karme - (v pripravi)
Nad-ljudje
Predavanja o okultni poti - komentarji: - (v pripravi)
- Ob nogah učitelja
- Luč na pot
- Glas tišine
Sardavni indijski ideal dolžnosti
Vpliv religioznih idelov na družbeno obnovo
Lepote islama
Bratstvo religij
Prihajajoča rasa
Pojavljanje svetovne religije
Evolucija vesolja
Prihodnost socializma
Prihodnost Teozofskega društva
Hatha Joga in Radža Joga v Indiji
Zakon poseljenosti
Zakon ponovnega rojstva
Mohamedovo življenje in učenja
Pomen in metoda duhovnega življenja
Potreba po reinkarnaciji - (v pripravi)
Plemenita osmerna pot
Mesto religije v življenju naroda
Teozofsko društvo in H.P.B.
Teozofija
Teozofija in krščanstvo
Politični položaj žensk
Teozofija in njena pričevanja
Teozofija in nova psihologija
Teozofija in teozofsko društvo
Vpliv alkohola
Notranji namen Teozofskega društva
Teozofija, njen pomen in vrednost
Organiziranost družbe - industrija v socializmu
Protestantski duh
Teozofija in njena pričevanja
Realnost nevidnih in aktualnost neopaženih svetov

Duhovno življenje I, II
Uporaba zla
Vrednost predanosti
Bela loža in njeni sli
Delo teozofije v svetu
Delo vladarja in učitelja
Mišljenje, njegov nadzor in vzgoja
Vegetarijanstvo v luči teozofije
Zoroastrianizem
Članki in zabeležke o vojni
Splet življenja
Ko človek umre, ali bo znova živel
Modrost upanishad - (v pripravi)
Zakaj ne verjamem v Boga
Yoga

Ancient Wisdom
A Rough Outline of Theosophy
A Word on Man, his Nature and his Powers  
A World Religion
A Sketch of Theosophy
Aspects of the Christ
Autobiography
1875—1891 A Fragment of Autobiography
Avataras
Basis of Morality
Bhagavad Gita (translation)
Britain's Place in the Great Plan
Building of the Cosmos
Creating Character
Communication between Different Worlds
Death and After 
Dharma
Discipleship + Some Karmic Problems
Doctrine of the Heart
East and West and the Destinies of Nations
Education in the Light of Theosophy
Elementary Lessons on Karma
Emotion, Intellect and Spirituality
England and India
Esoteric Christianity
Evolution and Occultism
Freethinker's Text-Book I, II
From the Outer Court to the Inner Sanctum
Giordano Bruno
Great Britain and the War
Hypnotism and Mesmerism
Immediate Future
Inauguration of the European Headquarters - July 1890
Industry Under Socialism
Initiation, the Perfecting of Man
Inner Government of the World
In the twilight
Introduction to Yoga
Investigations into Early Rounds
Investigations into the Super-Physical
Is Theosophy Anti-Christian?
Jainism
Karma
Laws of the Higher Life
Liberation or Salvation
Life and Life after Death
Life after Death
Man and His Bodies
Man's Life in This and in Other Worlds
Man: Whence, How and Whither
Materialism Undermined by Science
Wake up, India: A Plea for Social Reform
Masters
Memories of Past Lives
Memory
Modern science and the Higher Self
Mysticism - book
Mysticism - pamphlet
Nature's Finer Forces
Occult Chemistry
Occultism
Occultism, Semi-occultism and Pseudo-occultism
On Karma
On Moods
On Revelations
Pain - It's Meaning and Use
Path of Discipleship
Pedigree of Man
Practical Work for Theosophists
Proofs of the Existence of the Soul
Psychic and Spiritual Development
Public Spirit, Ideal and Practical
Reincarnation - article
Reincarnation
Revelation, Inspiration, Observation
Riddle of Life
Self and it's Sheaths
Seven Principles of Man
Shri Ramachandra
Some difficulties of the Inner Life
Some Problems of Life
Spiritual Life for the Man of the World
Study in Consciousness
Study in Karma
Super-Human Men
Talks on the Path of Occultism - Commentaries:
- At the Feet of the Master
- Light on the Path
- The Voice of the Silence
The Ancient Indian Ideal of Duty
The Bearing of Religious Ideals on Social Reconstruction
The Beauties of Islam
The Brotherhood of Religions
The Coming Race
The Emergence of a World Religion
The Evolution of The Universe
The Future of Socialism
The Future of the Theosophical Society
The Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga of India
The Law of Population
The Law of Rebirth
The Life and Teachings of Muhammad
The Meaning and Method of Spiritual Life
The Necessity for Reincarnation
The Noble Eightfold Path
The Place of Religion in National Life
The Theosophical Society and H.P.B.
Theosophy
Theosophy and Christianity
The Political Status of Women
Theosophy and Its Evidences
Theosophy and the New Psychology
Theosophy and the Theosophical Society
The Influence of Alcohol
The Inner Purpose of the Theosophical Society
Theosophy, Its Meaning and Value
The Organization of Society - Industry under Socialism
The Protestant Spirit
Theosophy and Its Evidences
The Reality of the Invisible
and the Actuality of the Unseen Worlds

The Spiritual Life I, II
The Use of Evil
The Value of Devotion
The White Lodge and Its Messengers
The Work of Theosophy in the World
The Work of the Ruler and the Teacher
Thought Power, Its Control and Culture
Vegetarianism in the Light of Theosophy
Zoroastrianism
War Articles and Notes
Web of Life
When a Man Dies, Shall He Live Again
Wisdom of the Upanishats
Why I Do Not Believe In God
Yoga

A. Besantove ocena druge knjige Tajnega Nauka Annie Besant's Second book Review of The Secret Doctrine

Prva uporaba jasnovidnosti dr. Besantove
Dr. Besantova kot kolegica in voditeljica
Resna posvetitev
Annie Besant in spreminjajoči se svet

Dr. Besant's First Use of Clairvoyance
Dr. Besant as a Comrade and a Leader
A Serious Dedication by Hugh Shearman
Annie Besant and the Changing World by Bhagavan Das

Vzhodna šola teozofije
Uredniku The Methodist Times
Prayag pismo
Arhivi in posebne zbirke na Dickinson Collegeu
Pisma Besant-Leadbeater-drugi

Eastern School of Theosophy
To the Editor of The Methodist Times
The Prayag Letter
Archives and Special Collections at Dickinson College
Letters: Besant-Leadbeater-Others

Mnoga življenja Annie Besant, Kumari Jayawardena
Annie Wood Besant: govornica, aktivistka, mističarka, retorik,
Susan Dobra
Annie Besant, Spartacus
Biografija Annie Besant, Jyotsna Kamat
Miroljubna aktivistka, Greg Betts
Niz predavanj Annie Besant v San Diegu, Thomas D. Clark
Annie Besant viktorijanka
Zmedena ali osupljiva?
Mnoge pretvorbe Annie Wood Besant,
Carol Hanbery MacKay
Družbena vizionarka, ki je zanetila luč, Pip Wilson
Annie Besant prostozidarka
Annie Besant in njen prestop k teozofiji,
Helene Ladyad
Annie Besant in pravice žensk v Angliji in Indiji,
Nancy Fix Aderson
Govori Annie Besant, Deanna Goodrich McMain
Sodna razprava Annie Besant in Charlesa Braudlaugha
Annie Besant, njena hrepenenja in odnosi,
Ernest Pelletier
Annie Besant, Michel Foucault,
in politika nadzora rojstev v viktorijanski dobi,
Kathlynn Fitzgerald

Annie Besant's many lives by Kumari Jayawardena
Annie Wood Besant: Orator, Activist, Mystic, Rhetorician
by Susan Dobra
Annie Besant on Spartacus
Biography of Annie Besant by Jyotsna Kamat
The Peaceful Activist by Greg Betts
Annie Besant's Quest for Truth by Mark Bevir
Annie Besant's Lecture Tour of San Diego by Thomas D. Clark
Annie Besant Victorian
Confounding or Amazing?
The Multiple Deconversions of Annie Wood Besant

by Carol Hanbery MacKay
Social visionary who lit a match by Pip Wilson
Annie Besant Co-Freemason
Annie Besant and her conversion to theosophy
by Helene Ladyad
Annie Besant and women's rights in England and India
by Nancy Fix Aderson
Annie Besant Speaks by Deanna Goodrich McMain
The trial of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh
Annie Besant her Passions and her Relationships
by Ernest Pelletier
Annie Besant, Michel Foucault,
and the Politics of Victorian Birth Contro
l
by Kathlynn Fitzgerald

Nastopni govor, 26. junij, 1907 - odlomek

Inaugural address, June 26, 1907 - excerpt

Društvo se ponuja kot jedro Univerzalnega Bratstva, in posebnost tega jedra nakazuje njegovo ime - teozofsko. Njegov namen je, da predaja in širi Teozofijo, božansko Modrost, Brahma Vidyo, Gnozo, Luč vseh luči, dejstvo, da človek lahko spozna Boga, da lahko pridobi znanje, ki je večno Življenje, ker je on sam po svoji naravi to, kar si prizadeva spoznati.

Na tem dejstvu, tej vse-prežemajoči istovetnosti narave, tej Združenosti, počiva Univerzalno Bratstvo; in, da bi o njej pridobil zunanje dokaze, človek išče v vseh religijah in filozofijah ter se potaplja v tajne skrivnosti narave in človeka.

The Society asserts itself as a nucleus of Universal Brotherhood, and its speciality as such a nucleus is indicated by its name - theosophical. It is its function to proclaim and spread abroad Theosophy, the divine Wisdom, the Brahma Vidya, the Gnosis, the Light of all lights, that man may know God, may attain the knowledge which is eternal Life, because he is himself of that nature which he seeks to know.

On this fact, this all-pervading identity of nature, this Unity, is based the Universal Brotherhood; and, to bring the outer proofs of it, it searches through all religions and philosophies, and dives into the hidden secrets of nature and of man.

Quotes

Better remain silent, better not even think, if you are not prepared to act.

Liberty is a great celestial Goddess, strong, beneficent, and austere, and she can never descend upon a nation by the shouting of crowds, nor by arguments of unbridled passion, nor by the hatred of class against class.

No philosophy, no religion, has ever brought so glad a message to the world as this good news of Atheism.

Not out of right practice comes right thinking, but out of right thinking comes right practice. It matters enormously what you think. If you think falsely, you will act mistakenly; if you think basely, your conduct will suit your thinking.

... those who can serve best, those who help most, those who sacrifice most, those are the people who will be loved in life and honoured in death, when all questions of colour are swept away and when in a free country free citizens shall meet on equal grounds.

For centuries the leaders of Christian thought spoke of women as a necessary evil, and the greatest saints of the Church are those who despise women the most.

I will suggest that the great aim of our education is to bring out of the child who comes into our hands every faculty that he brings with him, and then to try to win that child to turn all his abilities, his powers, his capacities, to the helping and serving of the community which is a part.

Never forget that life can only be nobly inspired and rightly lived if you take it bravely and gallantly, as a splendid adventure in which you are setting out into an unknown country, to face many a danger, to meet many a joy, to find many a comrade, to win and lose many a battle.

No philosophy, no religion, has ever brought so glad a message to the world as this good news of Atheism.

Refusal to believe until proof is given is a rational position; denial of all outside of our own limited experience is absurd.

We find amongst animals, as amongst men, power of feeling pleasure, power of feeling pain: we see them moved by love and by hate; we see them feeling terror and attraction; we recognize in them power of sensation closely akin to our own ... We know that when they feel terror, that terror means suffering. We know that when a wound is inflicted, that wound means pain to them.

In our relations to the animal kingdom a duty arises which all thoughtful and compassionate minds should recognize - the duty that because we are stronger in mind than the animals, we are or ought to be their guardians and helpers, not their tyrants and oppressors, and we have no right to cause them suffering and terror...

What of our duties to our fellow men? ... No one can eat the flesh of a slaughtered animal without having used the hand of a man as slaughterer. Suppose that we had to kill for ourselves the creatures whose bodies we would fain have upon our table, is there one woman in a hundred who would go to the slaughter-house to slay the bullock, the calf, the sheep or the pig? - Dare we call ourselves refined, if we purchase our refinement by the brutalization of others, and demand that some should be brutal in order that we may eat the results of their brutality?

Benediction

May the Holy Ones, whose pupils we aspire to become, show us the Light we seek, give us the strong aid of Their Compassion and Their Wisdom. There is a Peace that passeth understanding; it abides in the hearts of those who live in the Eternal. There is a Power that maketh all things new; it lives and moves in those who know the Self as One. May that Peace brood over us, that Power uplift us till we stand where the One Initiator is invoked, till we see His Star shine forth.

Invocation generally used in the Order of the Star in the East

O Master of the great White Lodge, Lord of the religions of the world, come down again to the earth that needs Thee, and help the nations that are longing for Thy presence. Speak the Word of Peace, which shall make the peoples to cease from their quarrellings; speak the Word of Brotherhood, which shall make the warring classes and castes to know themselves as one. Come with the might of Thy love, come in the splendour of Thy power, and save the world which is longing for Thy coming, Thou who art the Teacher alike of gods and men.

Convention 1917

The Theosophical Society must be ready to suffer for it, be ready to struggle for … liberty of speech, freedom of debate, in matters religious, intellectual, moral, political … When The Theosophical Society fears to stand by Freedom, then shall it be cut down and left to wither away; better a prison for the body than a dungeon for the mind.

Why I became a Theosophist?

An imperious necessity forces me to speak the Truth, as I see it, whether the speech please or displease, whether it bring praise or blame. That one loyalty to Truth I must keep stainless, whatever friendships fail me or human ties be broken. She may lead me into the wilderness yet must I follow her; she may strip me of all I love, yet I must pursue her; though she slay me yet will I trust in her; and I ask no other epitaph on my tomb but ‘She tried to Follow Truth’.

Pripravil: Anton Rozman